search for



Revised in May 2022

1. Editorial Policy

  • Journal of Retina is the official journal of the Korean Retina Society. It is an open access journal published twice a year (May 31st and November 30th) after peer review. Manuscripts must be prepared in accordance with the author instructions. Submitted manuscripts should not contain any data that has been published elsewhere and should not be reviewed simultaneously for publishing in other journals. Contents other than these guidelines are subject to the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals of International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE, or to the Editorial Board decision.

2. Research and Publication Ethics

  • 1) For the policies on research and publication ethics that are not stated in these instructions, the Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals or the Guidelines on Good Publication Practice, Council of Science Editors, International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, World Association of Medical Editors, or Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors can be applied.
    • Conflict of interest:
      Authors are required to disclose commercial or similar relationships to products or companies mentioned in or related to the subject matter of the article being submitted. Sources of funding for the article should be acknowledged before the reference section under the title of “Conflict of Interest”. Affiliations of the authors should include corporate appointments relating to or in connection with products or companies mentioned in the article.
    • Ethical consideration:
      ① Informed Consent - Manuscripts reporting the results of experimental investigation on human subjects must include a statement that informed consent was obtained.

      ② Declaration of Helsinki - A statement is required that the described research adhered to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki.

      ③ When doing research on animal subjects, efforts should be made to minimize the pain and discomfort of experimental animals according to the guidelines of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) Statement for Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research, and that should be stated.
    • Publication ethics:
      Studies should pursue the fundamental principles of honesty, truthfulness, and accuracy in all research activities, and reject dishonest acts such as fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism.
    • Secondary publication:
      It is possible to republish manuscripts if it satisfies the condition of secondary publication of the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals.
  • 2) All manuscripts should be prepared in strict observance of the research and publication ethics guidelines ( recommended by the Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors.
    • ① Fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism
      The theme, subjects, size of the study, selection of control group, and method of collecting samples should be in accordance with research ethics. Research misconduct includes fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. Authors have to follow the rules about publication ethics.
    • ② Ethical approval and consent form
      - All studies involving human or animal subjects should follow the Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki (2013, A statement is required that the described research adhered to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki.
      - If the study involved human subjects, human-derived materials or human medical records, please include the following statement in the Methods section: “Institutional Review Board (IRB)/Ethics Committee approval was obtained”. If the relevant IRB/Ethics Committee decided to exempt the study from deliberation, please state that “IRB/Ethics Committee ruled that approval was not required for this study.”
      - Manuscripts reporting the results of experimental investigation on human subjects must include a statement that informed consent was obtained.
      - Researches on animal subjects should follow the guidelines of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) Statement for Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research, and this should be stated within the Methods section of the manuscript. Additionally, approval of an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) is recommended.
    • ③ Process for Managing Research and Publication Misconduct:
      When the journal faces suspected cases of research and publication misconduct such as redundant (duplicate) publication, plagiarism, fraudulent or fabricated data, changes in authorship, an undisclosed conflict of interest, ethical problems with a submitted manuscript, a reviewer who has appropriated an author’s idea or data, complaints against editors, and soon, the resolution process will follow the flowchart provided by the Committee on Publication Ethics ( The discussion and decision on the suspected cases are carried out by the Editorial Board.

3. Gendered innovations Policy

  • For cell or animal experimental studies and clinical studies,
    - Describe the origin, certification, and biological characteristics of the cell line or animal
    - Study by including the same in both sexes in the target cell or animal and describe the result due to gender differences
    - Correctly describe sex and gender
    - Include research subjects for both sexes, compare and analyze the results, and submit an article
    - In the case of single-sex research, present scientifically reasonable evidences

4. Authorship criteria and specially related persons

  • 1) Authorship criteria
    - Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work, or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work
    - Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content
    - Final approval of the version to be published
    - Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
  • 2) Contributors who meet fewer than all 4 of the above criteria for authorship should not be listed as authors, but they should be acknowledged. Those whose contributions do not justify authorship may be acknowledged individually or together as a group under a single heading (e.g. "Clinical Investigators" or "Participating Investigators"), and their contributions should be specified
  • 3) When a researcher involves minors (those aged 19 or younger) or family members (spouse, children, within cousinage) (hereinafter referred to as 'specially related persons') in research or writing paper, it must be notified to the society or editorial committee in advance, and the reason for the participation of the relevant person as a co-author must be clarified. When submitting a paper for a specially related person, prior consent is required to provide personal information.

5. Copyright Transfer

6. Types of manuscript

  • Journal of Retina receives original articles, case reports, review articles and letters to the editor.

    1) Original article : Original articles include prospective and retrospective clinical studies, randomized trials and clinically relevant experimental studies. The main text (excluding abstracts, tables/figures, acknowledgments, and references) should be 3000 words or less. The manuscript should include ① a title page (title in Korean and English, name of authors in Korean and English), ② a summary in Korean (800 letters or less including spaces), ③ an abstract (English summary, 300 words or less) and keywords, ④ introduction, ⑤ materials and methods, ⑥ results, ⑦ discussion, ⑧ acknowledgment ⑨ references (up to 40), ⑩ figures, illustrations and explanatory captions (8 or less) and ⑪ tables (8 or less).

    2) Review article : Review articles are either invited by the editor or can be submitted by authors, and should be comprehensive analyses of specific topics. They are organized as follows: title page, abstract and keywords, introduction, body text, conclusion, acknowledgments, references (up to 40), tables (10 or less), figures and legends (10 or less). There should be an unstructured abstract equal to or less than 250 words in English. Main text should be 7500 words or less.

    3) Case Report

    ① Requirements for submission of case reports are identical to those applied to original articles unless they are mentioned below:

    ② The manuscript should be in the following sequence: title page (Korean and English, author), abstract (Korean and English) and keywords, introduction, case description, discussion, references, figures and figure legends.

    ③ Korean summary must be in a structured form in which each paragraph starts with the headings - purpose (or introduction), case summary, and conclusions (can be omitted) typed in bold style. The summary section should be brief and specific and not exceed 600 words, including space between words.

    ④ Abstract in English should be concise less than 250 words and provide an overview of summary in Korean. Abstract must be in a structured form in which each paragraph starts with headings - Purpose (or Introduction), Case Summary and Conclusion (can be omitted) typed in bold style.

    ⑤ Up to five keywords representing the main content of the article should be listed in alphabetical order. The first letter of each word should be capitalized.

    ⑥ The main sections of case report (introduction, case, discussion and reference) except title, Korean summary, abstract in English and figures should be submitted on no more than A4 8 pages and typed using 10 point font size.

    ⑦ Manuscripts that meet one of the following conditions will be considered.
       - A rare illness was handled.
       - Abnormal symptoms were presented.
       - A new diagnosis or treatment was provided.
       - The case is the first of its kind in Korea.
       - Culture-specific symptoms were presented.
       - The case has an academic significance.

    ⑧ The number of all the references should be written on no more than 15, and less than 4 in figures.

    4) Letter to editor : These should be an unstructured manuscript with 1000 words or less, and with 1 or less in figures and tables. The number of references should be no more than 10.

7. Manuscript Text Format

  • All manuscripts (Microsoft office word) must be submitted on A4 paper (21.0 × 29.8 cm), and text should be typed double-spaced using 10 points font size. Margins should be 2.5 cm at the top and bottom and on both sides of the text. The short paper title (within 20 Korean characters including blank space when it is a Korean paper, within 40 English characters including blank space when it is a English paper) and page number should appear at the top right of each page. No abbreviations should be included in the title. We accept manuscript written in Korean or English with appropriate proof-reading in format of .doc or .docx.

8. Manuscript Preparation

  • 1) The manuscript should include
       ① title page (title in Korean and English, name of authors in Korean and English),
       ② summary in Korean,
       ③ abstract (English summary) and keywords,
       ④ introduction,
       ⑤ materials and methods,
       ⑥ results,
       ⑦ discussion,
       ⑧ references,
       ⑨ figures, illustrations and explanatory captions
       ⑩ tables
  • 2) Sections of text should not be numbered using Arabic numerals.

9. Title Page

  • 1) The Korean title should be brief and meaningful by using less than 50 characters and two lines. The English title should not exceed 20 words and two lines. The first letter of each word should be capitalized except for a particle and preposition.
  • 2) The Korean title should be fully presented in Korean, if possible. The title should not include any abbreviation and product name.
  • 3) This page should contain the title of the article, full name(s) of author(s), department(s) and institution(s), and the name, address, e-mail address, and telephone and fax numbers of the corresponding author.
  • 4) Sources of funding for research and/or publication; and whether the paper is based on a previous communication to a society or meeting (with full details).

10. Summary in Korean

  • The summary should be fully informative without reference to the text by stating the purpose of the study, research findings and their scientific value. The summary section should not exceed 800 words, including blank space, and must be in a structured form in which each paragraph starts with the headings - purpose, materials and methods, results and conclusion typed in bold style. Summary should be brief and clear with specific data.

11. Abstract in English

  • Manuscript written in Korean should contain abstracts in Korean and English respectively, and manuscript written in English contains an abstract written in English.
  • 1) The abstract must be concise less than 300 words and provide an overview of the text’s structure.
  • 2) The abstract must be written in a structured form in which each paragraph starts with the headings - purpose, materials and methods, results and conclusions typed in bold style. Summary should be brief and clear with specific data.
  • 3) There should be less than five keywords listed in alphabetical order. The first letter of each word should be capitalized.

12. Text

  • 1) Introduction: Without a heading, the purpose of the study should be described in a brief and concise manner. An author should include background information that is related to the purpose but omit irrelevant information in the text.
  • 2) Materials and Methods: The design of the study should be followed by the description of materials and methods explaining how subjects are composed and surveyed. In case the study method is critical, experimental procedure should be specific and detailed to make the replication of the experiment possible.
  • 3) Results: The results of study should be described concisely and logically. When an experiment is performed, the significance of biological measurements should be statistically evaluated. Tables should avoid a duplication of information that is mentioned in the text but be used to highlight numerical information and key points.
  • 4) Discussion: The discussion section is to discuss elements related to the purpose of the study, to describe the results of analysis performed to draw a conclusion and to interpret the meaning of these results with references to the literature. Historical facts, textbook content and irrelevant information should not be included.

13. References

  • 1) All references must be written in Vancouver English style and the titles of journals should be abbreviated, according to the styles used in Index Medicus. If the abbreviation you are seeking is not listed in the list of journals indexed in Index Medicus, the original title can be used.
  • 2) The list of references should be arranged in numerical order according to the sequence of citations in the text. That is, the citation number in the reference list and the number of square bracket cited in the text should be identical for the same reference.
    • ① List name or names to cite a reference in the text as follows:

      ex) one author: Kim [1], two authors: Kim and Park [1], Three or more: Kim et al. [1]

    • ② The family name of the author should be followed by the capitalized English initials of the first name. The first letter of each word should be capitalized. List names of all authors when four or less. When five or more, list only the first three names and add et al. References to journal articles list the author(s), the full title of the article, the journal title, the year of publication, the volume number and page range without using the Italic emphasis.

      ex, 1) less than 4 numbers of author
      Lee JM, Hwang KY, Hwang HS, Kim MS. Long term clinical results of penetrating keratoplasty for macular corneal dystrophy. J Korean Ophthalmol Soc 2012;53:1425-31.

      ex, 2) more than 5 numbers of author
      Bonnet PO, Mason R, Single RL, et al. Hereditary retinal dystrophy. Am J Ophthalmol 1996;122:651-61.

    • ③ References not cited in the text should not be included in the reference list. Unpublished papers should be listed in the reference list as “to be published in (month)” instead of issue no. ( and page range.
    • ④ Any source marked as “cited from” cannot be valid. Abstract, poster, word of mouth, web page and manuals cannot be cited as reference.
    • ⑤ When the reference is at the end of a sentence, the period (.) should punctuate the sentence, not the superscripted citation number. The citation number comes after the author’s name, if any, otherwise follows the period. If more than one work is involved in the same citation, each number is followed by coma (,). If a sequence of three citation numbers occurs, a single range separated by a hyphen should be used as follows:

          ex): - described. [1,2] (×), - described [1,2]. (O)
                 Kim [1], Kim and Park [1]
               - described [1-3]., - described [1,2,7].
    • ⑥ Book reference list the author(s), chapter title, the book editor (the last two are applied when a chapter is cited), full title of book, edition of book, the place of publication, publisher, the year of publication and page range without using the Italic emphasis.

      ex, 1): In case of Book - Miller NR. Walsh and Hoyt’s Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed. Vol. 4. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1991;2102-14.

      ex, 2): A part of book (chapter) - Parks MM, Mitchell PR. Cranial nerve palsies. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane’s Clinical Ophthalmology, revised ed. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1993; chap. 19.

    • ⑦ References in electronic format

      ex, 1) Committee on Publication Ethics. Guidelines for retracting articles [Internet]. Committee on Publication Ethics; 2009 [cited 2013 Sep 20]. Available from:

      ex, 2) DOI journal - Smeeth L, Iliffe S. Community screening for visual impairment in the elderly. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(2):CD001054. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD1001054.

      ex, 3) Monograph in electronic format - Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P. Molecular Etiology of the cell [CD-ROM]. 4th ed. New York, NY: Garland Science, 2002.

14. Illustrations

  • 1) Drawings or photographic prints used in the text should appear on a separate page (5 million pixels, at least 300 dpi [color], 900 dpi [grey scale], 1,200 dpi [monochrome]) and be numbered in the same order in which they appear in the text. JPG, gif, TIFF and bmp extensions are recommended.
  • 2) The originals that were used for manuscript review should be published. Printer’s fee for illustrations will be charged to authors separately.
  • 3) The size of photographs should be 7.5 cm or 15.5 cm in width while there is no cap for length.
  • 4) Illustrations can be marked with arrows, letters or other symbols, if necessary. Multiple figures under one figure number should be marked on the photographs using capital alphabet letters, at the upper left corner.
  • 5) All the legends for figures should be written in English, and be self-explanatory. All the abbreviations should be described in each figure. The legends for each light microscopic photographs should include name of the stains and magnification (ex, H&E stain, ×400). Electron microscopic photographs should have an internal scale marker and magnification (ex, original bar length 100 μm, ×5,000).
  • 6) All clinical photographs submitted to Journal of Retina that permit identification of the patient in any way must be accompanied by a signed statement from the patient.

15. Tables

  • 1) The title should be marked at the top of the table in the order of its citation with a serial number and a title. The title should be a phrase, written in English and the first letter should be capitalized. The title should not be ended with a period.
  • 2) Use alphanumeric text written in the same font used in the main text. The line spacing should be just one line.
  • 3) Single tables should not be numbered. Each table should have a brief title so that the reader can understand what is being displayed in the table without reference to the text.
  • 4) When using abbreviation, write these symbols(*, †, ‡, §, Π, #, **, ††, ‡‡, §§, ΠΠ, ##) in order and concisely explain them at the bottom of the table.
  • 5) When statistical data is required, please mention the p-value and describe the statistical method, which was used. The units of all the data must be written and the decimal point of the data must be unified (ex, second decimal place, third decimal place).
  • 6) Do not use diagonal or vertical lines within the table. Horizontal lines must be put at the top and the bottom of the table, and also just below the parameters.
       ① The thickness of the outermost horizontal line should be 1.25, and for the line under the parameter 1.0.
       ② The parameter at the left side of the table must be aligned to the left.
       ③ The data should be aligned at center.

    ex) Table 2. Concave surface roughness of contact measured by atomic force microscope (AFM)

    Average Roughness (Ra) RMS* Roughness (Rq)
    Conventional Cosmetic p - value Conventional Cosmetic p - value
    Daily 9.68 34.03 0.067 12.39 54.86 0.031
    Extend 10.89 51.69 0.022 14.27 73.14 0.006
    *Root mean square; Student t -test.

16. Language, Nomenclature and Unit

  • 1) Manuscripts must be in Korean or English language. For medical terms and nouns that cannot be accurately translated into Korean, the original words can be used. When a term is not understandable in Korean alone, it should be followed by its English or Chinese equivalent in parenthesis.
  • 2) Authors are recommended to refer to the Glossary of Medical Terms published by the Korean Medical Association to use correct medical terms. For any medical terms not found in the glossary, please refer to the Dictionary of Ophthalmological Terms published by the Korean Ophthalmological Society and use headwords.
  • 3) Except for units of measurement, abbreviations are strongly discouraged. Do not use abbreviations in the title or abstract and limit their use in text. The spelled-out abbreviation followed by the abbreviation in parenthesis should be used on first mention.
  • 4) Names of Drugs, Devices, and Other Products. Generic names should be used. When proprietary brands are used, include the brand name, the name of the manufacturer, the city name, the state name, and the country name in parenthesis after the first mention of the generic name.

    ex, 1) In case of drug: 1% prednisolone acetate (Predforte®, Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA, USA)

    ex, 2) In case of instrument or device: Optical coherence tomography (Cirrus HD-OCT Model 400, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany)

  • 5) Units of measure should be presented according to the International System (SI) of units. All units must be preceded by one space except slash (/), range (-), ratio (:), percentage (%), degree (°) and celsius (°C).

    ex) 2 kg (O), 2kg (X), 3/15 (O), 20-30 (O), 5:6 (O), 50% (O), 50° (O), 36°C (O).

17. Costs

  • Costs of manuscript publication will be charged to authors. When an author wants printed copies of published manuscript, the author is responsible for additional publication costs for copies.

18. Peer review

  • All submitted manuscripts are subject to peer review, which is usually conducted by two persons who have credentials in the field of ophthalmology. The acceptance or rejection of the manuscript depends on the review results. Revision or addition of information can be also requested by reviewers, if necessary.

19. Other Requirements for Manuscript Submission

  • 1) All manuscripts should conform to the guidelines stated above. The publication can be delayed if manuscripts are not consistent with the standard thesis format and not verified for spelling errors.
  • 2) Manuscripts should not be altered after peer-review

    ex) Colored photos cannot be transformed into black and white photographic prints.

  • 3) The corresponding author will be responsible for the manuscript. A resident cannot serve as a responsible author, when multiple authors are involved in a study.
  • 4) If authors request the withdrawal or addition of a specific author after the paper has been submitted or published, the journal editor must request the reason and a document signed by all authors recorded in the paper and the author to be withdrawn or added.
  • 5) The name of author and institution address should not be stated within the text.

20. Submission

  • All manuscripts can be submitted via our online manuscript submission service available at or mailed to the following address.

    Editor-in-chief Jaeryung Oh
    The Korean Retina Society 1202-1203, Rosedale, 280 Gwangpyeong-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 06367, Korea
    E-mail: | Tel: 82-2-471-6520 | Fax: 82-2-471-6521

May 2022, 7 (1)
  • CrossMark
  • Crossref TDM